The earliest known surviving photograph made in a camera (pictured) was done by a man named Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. The photograph depicts a view from his estate, Le Gras, in the Burgundy region of France circa 1826 or 1827. It was made using a process for which he coined the term: l’héliographie (heliography). Heliography involves producing a photengraving on a metal plate coated with a sensitive asphalt preparation by using the sun’s rays flashed from a mirror. This first photograph is on permanent exhibition at the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin.

 

(Sources: www.hrc.utexas.edu, www.merriam-webster.com)